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2017家具业出路是何?南康家具产业加速升级发展!

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 党报:三四线城市房产回暖 农民工购房有心无力 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

若房地产税真的要来 五成人称“会受影响”

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

This research involves a large longitudinal study of emotion in interactions within married couples.
Shapley made early theoretical inroads into the subject, using game theory to analyze different matching methods in the 1950s and 1960s. Together with US economist David Gale, he developed a mathematical formula for how 10 men and 10 women could be coupled in a way so that no one would benefit from trading partners. While that may have had little impact on marriages and divorces, the algorithm they developed has been used to better understand many different markets.
The ranking is in part based on how successful alumni have been in their careers, as reflected in the salary data.
['steitm?nt]
玛戈特·瓦尔斯特伦在20多岁时结束了一段充满暴力的感情。作为外交部长,她正在一个传统上属于男性的领域里挑战各种假定。
她最近成了她的父亲、前总理纳瓦兹·谢里夫(Nawaz Sharif)的左膀右臂。但腐败指控给她的迅速崛起蒙上了阴影。
4. Outsourcing placement services.

在《After Laughter》(《欢笑过后》)这张专辑中,帕拉莫尔乐队别具一格的音乐技巧和极具讽刺性的歌词焕发出了荧光般的色彩。
The Democratic party's would-be challenger, Republican frontrunner Donald Trump, responded on Fox News, accusing Clinton of pandering to female voters.
在新兴市场出口量方面,巴韦贾不排除增长约4%至5%的可能性。但是,尽管与近年来相比这将是一种温和改善,但这一增长速度仍“处于长期分布中的最差25%区间,甚至可能是最差20%区间”,因为过去25年的年增长率中值约为7%。
奇才队如果想要留在强队之列,需要尽快给球队动手术。我们已经看到了他们一直以来期待的全员奇才是怎样的水准。
While the FT online and full-time MBAs are not strictly comparable because the criteria used to judge them are slightly different, it is interesting to note that IE and Warwick Business School are among six schools to feature in both rankings.

Footnotes

  • 北京通州即将迎来首个限竞房项目
  • 现在对于宣传单张的内容还没有详细的介绍,但之前投放的传单都包含谴责北韩统治者家族的言论。

virus
May the beauty and joy of New Year remain with you throughout the new year!愿新春美景与欢乐常伴随你!
三星的声明则更加简短:“媒体对收购的报道毫无根据。”
The four megalopolises also saw fewer traffic jams after November due to reasons ranging from less travel in winter and smoggy days to the return of migrant workers to their hometowns.
哈佛大学连续16年位居榜首,斯坦福大学和剑桥大学仍分别位列第二、第三名。
The companies that have tried — and so far failed — to create a sustained ETF boom in Asia say the need for wholesale reform suggests the market will be defined by a protracted effort to convince both the regulators and customers to redraw the scenery.

多足鼎立 2013年郑州建材卖场竞争惨烈

References

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